The First Memorial Day
by Yale professor of history David W. Blight
(For)…the earliest and most remarkable Memorial Day, we must return to where the war began. By the spring of 1865, after a long siege and prolonged bombardment, the beautiful port city of Charleston, S.C., lay in ruin and occupied by Union troops. Among the first soldiers to enter and march up Meeting Street singing liberation songs was the 21st United States Colored Infantry; their commander accepted the city’s official surrender.
Whites had largely abandoned the city, but thousands of blacks, mostly former slaves, had remained, and they conducted a series of commemorations to declare their sense of the meaning of the war.
The largest of these events, forgotten until I had some extraordinary luck in an archive at Harvard, took place on May 1, 1865. During the final year of the war, the Confederates had converted the city’s Washington Race Course and Jockey Club into an outdoor prison. Union captives were kept in horrible conditions in the interior of the track; at least 257 died of disease and were hastily buried in a mass grave behind the grandstand.
After the Confederate evacuation of Charleston black workmen went to the site, reburied the Union dead properly, and built a high fence around the cemetery. They whitewashed the fence and built an archway over an entrance on which they inscribed the words, “Martyrs of the Race Course.”
The symbolic power of this Low Country planter aristocracy’s bastion was not lost on the freedpeople, who then, in cooperation with white missionaries and teachers, staged a parade of 10,000 on the track. A New York Tribune correspondent witnessed the event, describing “a procession of friends and mourners as South Carolina and the United States never saw before.”
The procession was led by 3,000 black schoolchildren carrying armloads of roses and singing the Union marching song “John Brown’s Body.” Several hundred black women followed with baskets of flowers, wreaths and crosses. Then came black men marching in cadence, followed by contingents of Union infantrymen. Within the cemetery enclosure a black children’s choir sang “We’ll Rally Around the Flag,” the “Star-Spangled Banner” and spirituals before a series of black ministers read from the Bible.
After the dedication the crowd dispersed into the infield and did what many of us do on Memorial Day: enjoyed picnics, listened to speeches and watched soldiers drill. Among the full brigade of Union infantrymen participating were the famous 54th Massachusetts and the 34th and 104th United States Colored Troops, who performed a special double-columned march around the gravesite.
The war was over, and Memorial Day had been founded by African-Americans in a ritual of remembrance and consecration. The war, they had boldly announced, had been about the triumph of their emancipation over a slaveholders’ republic. They were themselves the true patriots.
Despite the size and some newspaper coverage of the event, its memory was suppressed by white Charlestonians in favor of their own version of the day. From 1876 on, after white Democrats took back control of South Carolina politics and the Lost Cause defined public memory and race relations, the day’s racecourse origin vanished.
Indeed, 51 years later, the president of the Ladies’ Memorial Association of Charleston received an inquiry from a United Daughters of the Confederacy official in New Orleans asking if it was true that blacks had engaged in such a burial rite in 1865; the story had apparently migrated westward in community memory. Mrs. S. C. Beckwith, leader of the association, responded tersely, “I regret that I was unable to gather any official information in answer to this.”
Beckwith may or may not have known about the 1865 event; her own “official” story had become quite different and had no place for the former slaves’ march on their masters’ racecourse. In the struggle over memory and meaning in any society, some stories just get lost while others attain mainstream recognition.
AS we mark the Civil War’s sesquicentennial, we might reflect on Frederick Douglass’s words in an 1878 Memorial Day speech in New York City, in which he unwittingly gave voice to the forgotten Charleston marchers.
He said the war was not a struggle of mere “sectional character,” but a “war of ideas, a battle of principles.” It was “a war between the old and the new, slavery and freedom, barbarism and civilization … and in dead earnest for something beyond the battlefield.” With or against Douglass, we still debate the “something” that the Civil War dead represent.
The old racetrack is gone, but an oval roadway survives on the site in Hampton Park, named for Wade Hampton, former Confederate general and the governor of South Carolina after the end of Reconstruction. The old gravesite of the Martyrs of the Race Course is gone too; they were reinterred in the 1880s at a national cemetery in Beaufort, S.C.
But the event is no longer forgotten. Last year I had the great honor of helping a coalition of Charlestonians, including the mayor, Joseph P. Riley, dedicate a marker to this first Memorial Day by a reflecting pool in Hampton Park.
By their labor, their words, their songs and their solemn parade on their former owners’ racecourse, black Charlestonians created for themselves, and for us, the Independence Day of a Second American Revolution.
Burroughs & Saden - 1st fl. room off of Teen Cafe
Community Meeting on the Future Direction of the BPL
The Bridgeport Public Library Board of Directors and City Librarian Scott Hughes invite you to a Community Meeting on the future direction of the Bridgeport Public Library – 7:00 PM. Wednesday, May 21st.
We believe that libraries change people’s lives. They are cornerstones of democracy. Please come and share your ideas on how we can best move forward with this mission.
Please be advised that the regularly scheduled meeting (every third Wednesday) of the Bridgeport Public Library Board of Directors has been changed to Wednesday, May 14th, 2014 at 7:00 PM.
Get $mart about your money
Housatonic Community College and the Bridgeport Public Library
Workshops are FREE but registration is requested.
For more info and full schedule: click here
Free Tax Preparation…
The United Way of Coastal Fairfield County can help you prepare and file your 2013 taxes for free.
Please view the attached notice to see if you qualify, then visit the following website to file your 2013 taxes: http://www.myfreetaxes.com/
This message is brought to you on behalf of United Way CFC, serving 12 area communities.
For further information about United Way CFC, visit www.unitedwaycfc.org
Burroughs & Saden – Children’s Dept.
Wednesday, April 9th
Burroughs & Saden – Children’s Dept.
The Bridgeport Public Library will celebrate the Week of the Young Child with a Family Drumming Circle featuring Michael Mills of Drums No Guns and Friends.
1:00 - 4:00 PM
Burroughs & Saden - 1st Floor
Make your mark on Bridgeport!
This afternoon festival highlights the many ways people around the
Bridgeport can take an active role in making their city. Take a bike
tour to re-imagine the Pequonnock River. Join a visioning workshop to
build three-dimensional models of your vision for the city’s future.
Learn how to fix a flat, build bikes out of salvaged parts, and make
your own bike art. Check out design proposals to protect Bridgeport
from future storms. Enjoy free food and drink from local restaurants,
and performances from local artists and musicians.
Burroughs & Saden Teen Cafe
Burroughs & Saden Children's Room
Parents, caregivers and guardians will engage in a traditional story hour featuring fingerplays, songs, stories and movies with the addition of iPad apps. After the story time parents may “check out” an iPad to use with their child in the library.
Learn how a smart device can help with your child’s early literacy skills. See how apps can enhance your reading experience along with using those traditional books that we know and love!
Story time is limited to 10 families.
Register online today.
Go to our website http://bportlbrary.org under “Events” or call at 203 576-7400 ext 408.
3:30 - 5:00 PM
Black Rock Branch
Henna Art by Ezia “Z” Leach
Ezia “Z” Leach of “Z” Face & Body Art will create a design for each participant along with teaching you a brief history of Henna and its uses in today’s world.
Class is limited to first 12 people that RSVP
at the Black Rock Branch Library!
(Individuals under 18 years of age must have a signed
permission slip from parent or guardian
before event to participate.)
Commonly Requested Tax Forms: 2013 Read more →
3:00 - 4:00 PM
Living Kwanzaa Through the Year
Learn the principles to make life better every day – with Pearlye Sams Allen
For more info call: 203-576-7400 X408
3:00 - 4:00 PM
Living Kwanzaa Through the Year
Learn the principles to make life better every day – with Pearlye Sams Allen.
For more info call: 203-576-7821